And in 2001, the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty came up with the concept of responsibility to protect (RTP)the idea that the international community has a responsibility to protect civilians when their own states fail to do so. Philosophical Perspectives on the War on Terrorism, assembled and edited by Gail M. Presbey, a collection of twenty original essays written by members of. Since his appointment as secretary-general in January 2007, Ban Ki-moon has said that he will spare no effort to operationalize the responsibility to protect. He has appointed special advisors on genocide prevention and responsibility to protect and established a 2 million Responsibility to Protect Fund supported by Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Austra.
This emerging norm, it can be argued, was an expression of global civil society, the outcome of a global political debate on intervention that included humanitarian and human rights NGOs; individuals such as Bernard Kouchner, who co-founded Mdecins sans Frontires; various think tanks and commissions, such as the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the International Crisis.